Marriages are of the three standard
types: arrangement, capture and mutual agreement. Only the very rich arrange
marriages for their sons or daughters. Such arrangements are made when they
are only fourteen or fifteen years old. When the arrangements are agreed upon,
the boy's father takes the boy and goes to the girl's parents house
accompanied by 40 or 50 people and brings the bride back to his own house,
where the actual wedding ceremony takes place. The wedding consists of putting
the tika mark on the forehead of both the boy and girl by all senior members
of the family and relatives. The neighbors and relatives are fed boiled rice,
mutton or buffalo meat, and given much spirit to drink.
A capture marriage usually occurs when
the boy selects a bride who may not consent easily or when he wants to avoid
the long procedure and expenditure of an arranged marriage. It is done even
in the case of preferred cross-cousin marriages to save trouble, time and
expense. If the captured girl persistently refuses to get married for three
days, she is allowed to return to her parents. If she agrees, a proper
wedding ceremony is organized and friends and relatives, including the
girl's parents are invited. A girl may be captured from a fair or a market.
It her parents take the offence too seriously, they approach the boy's
family making demands for compensation. Once they are pacified the rest of
the procedure follows smoothly.
Most Tamang young people get married
by mutual agreement. When a boy and girl are in love and decide to marry,
the boy asks his parents to approach her parents for their consent. Once
consent is given the wedding can be organized in the same way as in the case
of an arranged marriage. If by any chance either the boy's or the girl's
parents do not consent to the match the only choice for them is to elope and
remain hidden until their parents either agree or totally ignore them.
In cases of marriage by capture and by
elopement the bride and the groom go to the girl's parents' house only when
the parents have given their consent. Usually they are accompanied on this
visit by a party of 20 or 30 people and their activities are known as zendi.
The new couple must take a bottle of spirit as a gift to the girl's parents.
The girl receives dowries from her friends, relatives, and parents. Her
parents give brass and copper pots and utensils, clothes, ornaments and
sometimes cattle, while the others give her a rupee or two or even five
rupees each. These gifts are called gordha and the husband must return any
of them, which he may have appropriated should he divorce his wife later.
The amount of gordha usually depends upon the amount her parents are
prepared to spend on the feast provided for the guests. A zendi is usually
held within three days after the boy takes the girl. The couple may stay for
several days when they come with their friends to the girl's parents' house
for zendi while the party itself returns the next day. When the young couple
returns home, they are accompanied by a group of people and carry a bottle
of spirit as a gift for the boy's parents.
If a man has only one daughter and no
sons he can bring in a husband for his daughter to inherit and own property.
The husband is not subsequently allowed to take another wife, but should he
do so while he is enjoying the property of his first wife's father, it
automatically goes back to his first wife. Should the wife leave the husband
her father has brought in she is not entitled to her father's property; if
she dies the husband can with her parents' permission marry another women.
Lamas usually marry the daughters of
other Lamas and teach their sons to act as Lamas. "In this way" notes
Furer-Haimendorf, "a class of lamas have grown up and though neither
strictly endogamous nor formally privileged, this class now forms an upper
stratum distinct from the ordinary cultivators. Lama however is a broad
term. The priestly class among the sherpas and all the disciples and monks
of any monastery are also popularly called "Lama". There is also a clan
called lama among the sherpas. All non-Tamangs, when trying to be polite use
the flattering term "Lama" for any Tamang individual.
The Tamangs are professedly Buddhists.
There are ghyangs Buddhist temples in every sizeable village. The gods and
the religious paintings in the temples are in the sherpa style the religious
texts are all in Tibetan script. The few festivals and the ritual ceremonies
conducted in the ghyangs are in the proper Buddhist fashion like those of
the sherpas and other northern border people. The lamas of the Tamang
community are trained in these lamaistic Buddhist ritual procedures and as
the official priests conduct different kinds of ceremonies and funerals. In
some of the ghyangs they perform chho, a worshipping ceremony on the first
days of certain month; for example, chho is observed on the first day of
Magh (in mid-January) and in observance of nara, a feast ceremony for the
full moon day in August. Most of the ghyangs have an endowment of lands for
their maintenance and for giving occasional feasts.
Tamangs inscribe prayers and the names
of gods on stone tablets and put them by the roadside framed by a stone
wall. There are called hiki. Bibs and manis (chortens of sherpa style) are
built as memorials to dead relatives. When one is completed, a big feast is
given to the villagers. All of this is supposed to bring some merit, which
will help both the dead and the person who spends the money and time in the
building process. Lamas are employed for such occasions. At the wedding
ceremony, however, Lamas are not necessary; they have no role. But they are
employed in reciting religious scriptures for the general welfare and at the
name-giving ceremony of a newborn baby. The name-giving ceremony is done on
the seventh day for a girl and the ninth or eleventh day after birth for a
boy. Many Tamang Lamas have studied in Sherpa monasteries and a few even in
Other Tamang religious activities
include Jhankrism. Jhankrism is not peculiar to the Tamangs but is found
throughout the country among almost all groups of people. Tamangs call their
Jhankri priest their bonpo. He conducts kyon gyalsi the 'driving away of the
spirits', when people fall ill. He worships and sacrifices animals at the
shipda than, a shrine for worshipping and offering sacrifices to the earth
deity at the time of bhumi puja in the month of October-November and he
officiates at other seasonal agricultural rites.
The bonpo propitiates gods and spirits
whenever necessary. He decides when a lha, a clan deity, should be
worshipped and which family has the responsibility. Each clan has its own
lha and usually the richer members bear the expenses, but all members of the
clan living nearby join in the festivities. Each family attending the
ceremony brings its contribution of rice and other food and some money, so
the family giving the ceremony is partly compensated. The Iha is usually
worshipped between November and February. When proper lamas worship their
clan deity and observe bhumi puja, they do so with offerings of vegetables
only; they do not sacrifice any animals.
Tamangs also perform, on rare
occasions, a ritual known as phola Ihasu, a kind of feast of merit in honour
of a clan god. This is extremely expensive. When proper Lamas perform it
they avoid animal sacrifices of the type that the Jhankri priest would do,
but they give a lavish feast to the villagers and make enormous figures of
cooked rice. A phola lhasu can be given either by one individual family or
by all the members of a clan resident in one village. Tamangs observe the
Hindu festival of dashain in honour of the goddess Durga by sacrificing
goats and chickens and feasting on them.
The Jhankri bonpo is usually chosen
from among the clan members and is considered the clan's priest, whereas a
Lama can be of any clan. The bonpo receives one pathi (six to eight pounds)
of grain per year from each family in return for the services he renders. He
also receives the heads of the animals he sacrifices. The bonpo can call the
spirits and becomes possessed in order to enable the gods or spirits to
speak through him. When he dies, his spirit selects a new bonpo to take his
Between the Jhankri and the Buddhist
Lama priest, the lama ranks higher, commanding greater respect from his
clients and enjoying a greater income. But Jhankrism is not less important
in the socio-religious life of the Tamang community. At funeral rites only
the Lama is entitled topreside and a Lama must be present at the time of
cremation at the traditional site, which is always on the top of a hill. All
villagers bring a bundle of firewood, incense, drinks and rice to the
cremation. Then, within 7 to 13 days after death, a funeral ceremony called
syarku tongsi is done at the convenience of the family survivors. They bring
rice and fifty pice each as their contribution when they come to the feast.
Another ceremony is held sometime in
the period beginning thirty-five days after the funeral and before six
months have elapsed. This ceremony involves much greater expense. Many
guests are invited and they bring rice and a few rupees with them. All these
gifts are reciprocal; each family, whenever there is a death within it,
provides a feast for the villagers and receives some food and money. The
food and money thus collected is usually not quite enough to meet the entire
cost but is of considerable help.
The leader of most social activities
of the village is the mulmi. He is selected by the people for a definite
number of years in some cases, while in others the post of mulmi is
hereditary. The office is endorsed by the district government. A new mulmi
is officially appointed by the villagers on the day of bhumi puja the
worship of Mother earth. They mulmi is the agent for collecting land revenue
fro the villagers~ from which he receives a certain percentage when he takes
it to the district revenue office. He is also entitled to one day's free
labour from each household within his Jurisdiction. The mulmi with the help
of the village elders also controls the forest in his area, which is the
source of firewood and timber for the village houses. He is entitled to
settle disputes, to levy fines and to mete out punishment except in the case
of a few extreme penalties, capital punishment life imprisonment shaving the
head for degradation of caste or loss of caste all of which are discharged
by a higher government official. Whenever the villagers have complicated
caste disputes over marriages between members of unequal caste they invite
lamas to adjudicate.
End of Part One
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